How to Order
Secure Order Form
Erectile Dysfunction Package
Horny Goat Weed
LI 160 St. John's Wort
Niacin, Sustained Release
Vitamin E Oil
PROhGH Sport For Women
Pro Sports Creme
Skin Fold Calipers
TransMist™-Progesterone Transdermal Spray
C, Time Released
tied to DHEA
Aging: A Specific
Temperature & Sleep
Building Muscle Mass in the
Ginkgo Trees, order
Growth Hormone Stimulators
Heart Attacks and Neuro DHA
Herbs & Botanicals
Herbs - The American Approach
Herbs - The German Approach
Hormone Balance in the Menopausal Female
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Human Growth Hormone
Hormone Replacement Library - Women
IP-6 Inositol Hexaphosphate
IP6 Gov Report
Lukemia & HGH
Library - HRT
Lupus & DHEA, From The
Penis Enlargement - Facts and Fiction
Progesterone-The Real story
Sleep Clinic, The
Body & Sleep
Testosterone & Men
Testosterone, Maintaining Levels
C, Time Released
Minerals & Amino Acids
Body, Image & Health
tied to DHEA
| What is homocysteine? |
| Excessively High Levels of homocysteine
Hyperhomocysteinemia: a new risk factor for degenerative diseases. |
| Effect of Homocysteine-Lowering Therapy |
| Dosage |
The Swiss Heart Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Effect of Homocysteine-Lowering Therapy
With Folic Acid, Vitamin B12, and Vitamin B6 on Clinical Outcome After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Guido Schnyder, MD; Marco Roffi, MD; Yvonne Flammer, MD; Riccardo Pin, MD; Otto Martin Hess, MD
Context: Plasma homocysteine level has been recognized as an important cardiovascular risk factor that predicts adverse cardiac events in patients with
established coronary atherosclerosis and influences restenosis rate after percutaneous
(Cutting through the Skin) coronary intervention.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention.
Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving 553 patients referred to the University Hospital in Bern, Switzerland, from May 1998 to April 1999 and enrolled after successful angioplasty of at least 1 significant coronary stenosis
(50%) (stenosis: /stino'sis/, an abnormal condition marked
by the tightening or narrowing of an opening or passageway in a body structure).
Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to receive a combination of:
|Folic acid (1 mg/d), |
|Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin, 400 µg/d), and |
|Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride, 10 mg/d) (n = 272) |
| or placebo (n = 281) .|
for 6 months.
Homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 significantly decreases the incidence of major adverse events after
| Back to Top |
Hyperhomocysteinemia (Excessively High Levels of
A new risk factor for degenerative diseases.
Herrmann W, Knapp JP.Clin Lab 2002;48(9-10):471-81
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Saarland Medical School, Homburg/Saar, Germany. email@example.com
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY) is a consequence of disturbed methionine metabolism. It results from enzyme and/or vitamin deficiency. Epidemiological and clinical studies have proven HHCY to be an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, stroke, peripheral arterial occlusive disease and venous thrombosis. Trials in progress may clarify the "causality" of high homocysteine
(HCY) concentrations and will assess the value of HCY lowering therapy. HHCY is also seen as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as cognitive impairment, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and also for depression. There is a high prevalence of HHCY as a syndrome of vitamin shortage in elderly subjects, which strongly increases with advancing age. Elderly people have a high frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency which is more reliably diagnosed by measurement of serum methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamin II, the metabolically active B12 fraction, than by total serum vitamin B12. Subjects who follow a strict vegetarian diet also have a high prevalence of HHCY caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. For prevention of neurological damages an early diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is important. Furthermore, HHCY is a factor in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects and
preeclampsia. HCY should be measured in patients with a history of atherothrombotic vessel diseases, in patients with diabetes or
hyperlipidemia, in renal patients, in adipose subjects, in elderly people, in vegetarians, in postmenopausal women, and in early pregnancy.
PMID: 12389706 [PubMed - in process]
| Back to Top |
What is homocysteine, and how is it related to cardiovascular risk?
Homocysteine (ho"mo-sis-TE'in) is an amino acid in the blood. Too much is related to a higher risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral
(peh-RIF'er-al) vascular disease.
Two reports have strengthened the evidence for this relationship:
A large multi-center European trial found that men and women under 60 had a 2.2 times overall higher risk of cardiovascular disease if their plasma total homocysteine levels were in the top fifth of the normal range. This risk was independent of other risk factors but was notably higher in smokers and people with high blood pressure.
A Norwegian study of 587 patients with coronary heart disease found that their risk of death after four to five years was proportional to plasma total homocysteine levels. The risk rose from 3.8 percent in those with the lowest levels (below 9 micromol per liter) to 24.7 percent with the highest levels (greater than 15 micromol per liter).
Other evidence suggests that homocysteine may promote atherosclerosis (ath"er-o-skleh-RO'sis) by damaging the inner lining of arteries and promoting blood clots. However, a causal link hasn't been established.