Click here and search for over 500 products and read the guarantees!      ¿Quieres español?

Site Map


To view our Credit Card Compliance Certificate Click the above Image.

 

$1.57 each  80 tabs
Free Shipping

Generic Viagra

Advertismewnts

$1.80 each 75 tabs
Free Shipping

Generic Cialis
$2.43 each 90 tabs
Free Shipping

Generic Levitra

Generic Zocor
Per pill to $0.87
Generic Propecia
Per pill  to $0.57
Generic Acomplia: As low as $1.66/pill

The above "Chat" is for www.4rx.com the leader in online pharmacies!
(Advertisement)

Subscribe to our 
Newsletter. Free!

 
Subscribe
Unsubscribe

Home
Sitemap
How to Order
Secure Order Form
Contact Us

Product Information
5-HTP
5-HTP Library
Acetylcholine
Acetyl-L-Carnitine
Alluna™
Alpha-Lipoic Acid
Amino Acids
Amoxicillin 
AndrosteDERM
Androstat
Apomorphine
Arginine
Books
Books on Menopause
Cialis - Generic
Citicoline
CoQ-10
DHA
DHEA
Dim (Diindolylmethane)
Ephedra Ban
Erectile Dysfunction Package
Erections
First Aid
Folic Acid
Gamma-Oryzanol
Generic Drugs
Ginko Biloba
Glutamine
hGH-PH Complex
Histidine
Hops
Horny Goat Weed
Human Sexuality
Hyaluronic Acid
Impotence
IP-6
LI 160 St. John's Wort
Levitra - Generic
MSM
Melatonin
Natural V
Niacin, Sustained Release
NorAndrosteDERM
Neuro-DHA
Passion Flower
Pregnenolone
Progesterone Cream 
Progesterone, Natural
Projuvine
Progesterone in Vitamin E Oil
Progesterone-Transdermal Spray
PRO hGH
PROhGH Sport For Women
Pro Sports Creme
Rejuvine
Resveratrol
Secretagogue-One
Sexual Dysfunction Pak-Women
Skin Fold Calipers
TransMist™-Progesterone Transdermal Spray
TriBuplex
Valerian Extract
Viagra - Generic
Vitamin B6
VitaminB12
Vitamin C, Time Released
Womens Libido tied to DHEA

General Information

5-HTP Update
About Pharmasan Labs
Aging: A Specific 
Alzheimers
Apomorphine  HGH
Body Temperature & Sleep
Biological Function
Aging
Alternative Medicine
Beta Blockers
Biological Clocks
Building Muscle Mass in the Aging
Compounding Pharmacy
Coronary Heart Disease
DHEA
Depression
Depression, Male
Diindolylmethane DIM
Dreaming
End-of-life
Ephedra Ban
Erectile Dysfunction 
Erections
Estrogen Dominance
Ginkgo Trees, order
Glossary
Growth Hormone Stimulators
Heart Attacks and Neuro DHA
Heart Clinic, The
Herbs & Botanicals
Herbs - The American Approach
Herbs - The German Approach
Homocysteine
Hormone Balance in the Menopausal Female
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Human Growth Hormone
Hormone Replacement Library - Women
Impotence
Insomnia
IP-6 Inositol Hexaphosphate
IP6 Gov Report
Lukemia & HGH
Library 5-HTP
Library - HRT
Light
Lupus & DHEA, From The FDA:
Mania
Menopause Therapy-News
Natural V Testosterone
Pain
Penis Enlargement - Facts and Fiction
Perimenopause
Pituitary Gland
Progesterone
Progesterone Deficiency
Progesterone-The Real story
ProHormones
Resveratrol
Sexual dysfunction-Women
Sexual Dysfunction-Men
Sirtuins
Sleep Clinic, The
Suicide
Telomerase
Temperature, Body & Sleep
Testosterone For Women
Testosterone & Men
Testosterone Dominance
Testosterone & Women
Testosterone, Maintaining Levels
Vitamin C, Time Released
Vitamins, Minerals & Amino Acids
Woman's Body, Image & Health
Womens Libido tied to DHEA

 

NEUROTRANSMITTERS

I INTRODUCTION 

Neurotransmitter, chemical made by neurons, or nerve cells. Neurons send out neurotransmitters as chemical signals to activate or inhibit the function of neighboring cells.
Within the central nervous system, which consists of the brain and the spinal cord, neurotransmitters pass from neuron to neuron. In the peripheral nervous system, which is made up of the nerves that run from the central nervous system to the rest of the body, the chemical signals pass between a neuron and an adjacent muscle or gland cell. 


II  TYPES OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS

 Nine chemical compounds-belonging to three chemical families-are widely recognized as neurotransmitters. In addition, certain other body chemicals, including adenosine, histamine, enkephalins, endorphins, and epinephrine, have neurotransmitterlike properties. Experts believe that there are many more neurotransmitters as yet undiscovered.
The first of the three families is composed of amines, a group of compounds containing molecules of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Among the amine neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. Acetylcholine is the most widely used neurotransmitter in the body, and neurons that leave the central nervous system (for example, those running to skeletal muscle) use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter; neurons that run to the heart, blood vessels, and other organs may use acetylcholine or norepinephrine. Dopamine is involved in the movement of muscles, and it controls the secretion of the pituitary hormone prolactin, which triggers milk production in nursing mothers.

Dopamine also plays a major role in the obtaining and retaining of the male erection.  The drug Apomorphine is used as a sexual dysfunction drug by stimulating the production of dopamine and is also a powerful human growth hormone stimulator.


The second neurotransmitter family is composed of amino acids, organic compounds containing both an amino group (NH2) and a carboxylic acid group (COOH). Amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters include glycine, glutamic and aspartic acids, and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). Glutamic acid and GABA are the most abundant neurotransmitters within the central nervous system, and especially in the cerebral cortex, which is largely responsible for such higher brain functions as thought and interpreting sensations.
The third neurotransmitter family is composed of peptides, which are compounds that contain at least 2, and sometimes as many as 100 amino acids. Peptide neurotransmitters are poorly understood, but scientists know that the peptide neurotransmitter called substance P influences the sensation of pain.
In general, each neuron uses only a single compound as its neurotransmitter. However, some neurons outside the central nervous system are able to release both an amine and a peptide neurotransmitter.
Neurotransmitters are manufactured from precursor compounds like amino acids, glucose, and the dietary amine called choline. Neurons modify the structure of these precursor compounds in a series of reactions with enzymes. Neurotransmitters that come from amino acids include serotonin, which is derived from tryptophan; dopamine and norepinephrine, which are derived from tyrosine; and glycine, which is derived from threonine. Among the neurotransmitters made from glucose are glutamate, aspartate, and GABA. Choline serves as the precursor for acetylcholine.


III HOW NEUROTRANSMITTERS WORK Neurotransmitters are released into a microscopic gap, called a synapse, that separates the transmitting neuron from the cell receiving the chemical signal. The cell that generates the signal is called the presynaptic cell, while the receiving cell is termed the postsynaptic cell.
After their release into the synapse, neurotransmitters combine chemically with highly specific protein molecules, termed receptors, that are embedded in the surface membranes of the postsynaptic cell. When this combination occurs, the voltage, or electrical force, of the postsynaptic cell is either increased (excited) or decreased (inhibited).
When a neuron is in its resting state, its voltage is about -70 millivolts. An excitatory neurotransmitter alters the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron, making it possible for ions (electrically charged molecules) to move back and forth across the neuron's membranes. This flow of ions makes the neuron's voltage rise toward zero. If enough excitatory receptors have been activated, the postsynaptic neuron responds by firing, generating a nerve impulse that causes its own neurotransmitter to be released into the next synapse. An inhibitory neurotransmitter causes different ions to pass back and forth across the postsynaptic neuron's membrane, lowering the nerve cell's voltage to -80 or -90 millivolts. The drop in voltage makes it less likely that the postsynaptic cell will fire.
If the postsynaptic cell is a muscle cell rather than a neuron, an excitatory neurotransmitter will cause the muscle to contract. If the postsynaptic cell is a gland cell, an excitatory neurotransmitter will cause the cell to secrete its contents.
While most neurotransmitters interact with their receptors to create new electrical nerve impulses that energize or inhibit the adjoining cell, some neurotransmitter interactions do not generate or suppress nerve impulses. Instead, they interact with a second type of receptor that changes the internal chemistry of the postsynaptic cell by either causing or blocking the formation of chemicals called second messenger molecules. These second messengers regulate the postsynaptic cell's biochemical processes and enable it to conduct the maintenance necessary to continue synthesizing neurotransmitters and conducting nerve impulses. Examples of second messengers, which are formed and entirely contained within the postsynaptic cell, include cyclic adenosine monophosphate, diacylglycerol, and inositol phosphates.
Once neurotransmitters have been secreted into synapses and have passed on their chemical signals, the presynaptic neuron clears the synapse of neurotransmitter molecules. For example, acetylcholine is broken down by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase into choline and acetate. Neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and GABA are removed by a physical process called reuptake. In reuptake, a protein in the presynaptic membrane acts as a sort of sponge, causing the neurotransmitters to reenter the presynaptic neuron, where they can be broken down by enzymes or repackaged for reuse.


IV ROLES OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN DISEASE

 Neurotransmitters are known to be involved in a number of disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. Victims of Alzheimer's disease suffer from loss of intellectual capacity, disintegration of personality, mental confusion, hallucinations, and aggressive-even violent-behavior. These symptoms are the result of progressive degeneration in many types of neurons in the brain. Forgetfulness, one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, is partly caused by the destruction of neurons that normally release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Medications that increase brain levels of acetylcholine have helped restore short-term memory and reduce mood swings in some Alzheimer's patients.
Neurotransmitters also play a role in Parkinson's disease, which slowly attacks the nervous system, causing symptoms that worsen over time. Fatigue, mental confusion, a masklike facial expression, stooping posture, shuffling gait, and problems with eating and speaking are among the difficulties suffered by Parkinson's victims. These symptoms have been partly linked to the deterioration and eventual death of neurons that run from the base of the brain to the basal ganglia, a collection of nerve cells that manufacture the neurotransmitter dopamine. The reasons why such neurons die are yet to be understood, but the related symptoms can be alleviated. L-dopa, or levodopa, widely used to treat Parkinson's disease, acts as a supplementary precursor for dopamine. It causes the surviving neurons in the basal ganglia to increase their production of dopamine, thereby compensating to some extent for the disabled neurons.
Many other effective drugs have been shown to act by influencing neurotransmitter behavior. Some drugs work by interfering with the interactions between neurotransmitters and intestinal receptors. For example, belladonna decreases intestinal cramps in such disorders as irritable bowel syndrome by blocking acetylcholine from combining with receptors. This process reduces nerve signals to the bowel wall, which prevents painful spasms.
Other drugs block the reuptake process. One well-known example is the drug fluoxetine (Prozac), which blocks the reuptake of serotonin. Serotonin then remains in the synapse for a longer time, and its ability to act as a signal is prolonged, which contributes to the relief of depression and the control of obsessive-compulsive behaviors.






Advertismewnts

For 10% discount use:
"hormone10" 
4rX.com Pharmacy

$1.57 each  80 tabs
Free Shipping

Generic Viagra

$1.80 each 75 tabs
Free Shipping

Generic Cialis

$2.43 each 90 tabs
Free Shipping

Generic Levitra

$1.80 each 75 tabs
Free Shipping for the best

Generic Cialis

$1.80 each 75 tabs
Free Shipping for the best

Generic Cialis

www.4rx.com
Click here for
 Espanol

Advertismewnts

For 10% discount use:
"hormone10" 

Aclepsa.com

$1.56 each 70 tabs
Free Shipping

Generic Viagra

$1.72 each 90 pills
Free Shipping

Generic Cialis

$2.65 each 60 pills
Free Shipping

Generic Levitra

$1.72 each 90 pills
Free Shipping

Generic Cialis

$1.72 each 90 pills
Free Shipping

Generic Cialis

 

© 1998-2014 by The Hormone Shop, LLC.

Norman@thehormoneshop.com
This page was last updated on 02/22/14

This Site does not endorse any product advertised on it.

Please note that the sale of DHEA or Melatonin is not available, legally in Australia or any member nations of the
European Union (excluding the United Kingdom & Switzerland). Customers must  have a valid prescription in order to purchase
these products in Australia or any member nations of the European Union (excluding the United Kingdom & Switzerland)

Disclaimer: The Hormone Shop LLC assumes no liability, whether under a theory of contract, tort, negligence, product liability or otherwise. In no event shall The Hormone Shop LLC be liable for any direct or indirect, consequential, incidental, special, punitive or exemplary damages, or for any loss incurred due to results or comments that are reported or the use of collection materials that are supplied, or any prescriptions regardless of whether The Hormone Shop LLC knew or should have known of the possibility of such damages. Furthermore, in no event  shall The Hormone Shop LLC's total cumulative liability exceed The Hormone Shop LLC's net profit on any specific product, sample or  consultation giving rise to the liability.  The Hormone Shop LLC specifically assumes no liability incurred by any 3rd party associate and if you are reading this web site in a language other that English it has been machine translated by SYSTRAN who strives to achieve the highest possible accuracy, however no automated translation is perfect nor is it intended to replace human translators. Users should note that the quality of the source text significantly affects the translations and The Hormone Shop LLC assumes no liability for incorrect or misleading translations.  The questions and comments appearing in the "Discussion Group Forum" are strictly from unknown or unidentified sources and the reader/participant should be aware that credentials from any source are completely lacking and should be questioned.  The Hormone Shop LLC specifically assumes no liability for any comment or advice appearing in the "Discussion Forum".

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food & Drug
Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent
any disease. If pregnant or lactating, consult a physician before using.

Notice: This information on anti-aging products  is provided for educational and nutritional purposes. Any medical procedures, dietary changes or the use of dietary supplements discussed herein should only be undertaken on the advice of a qualified medical doctor. Although listed and sold as dietary supplements these are not innocuous, inert substances; rather they can and do affect vital systems within the human body and it is for this reason that you are urged to find a medical doctor who will work with you in monitoring and maintaining your well being.

These sites are the design work of Norman Rose who can be reached at norman@thehormoneshop.com 

http://thehormoneshop.com
http://www.drugsfromindia.net
http://www.ginkgo-inc.com
http://www.kc-real-estate.com
http://www.cybernetrealty.net
http://www.thehormoneshop.net 
http://www.thehormoneshop.org 
http://www.thehormoneshop.biz 
http://www.thehormoneshop.us 
http://www.thehormoneshop.net
http://www.comparegenerics.net 
http://www.indiagenerics.org 
http://www.genericsinspanish.com   
http://www.genericsince1998.com
 

http://www.cialisfromindia.com
http://www.levitrafromindia.com
http://www.viagrafromindia.com 
Pregnenolone
Products & Info
Progesterone
DHEA
Products & Info
Erectile Dysfunction
Sexual Dysfunction-Women
Horny Goat Weed
Estro Gentle
Prostate
Leukemia
HGH Stimulators
HGH
5-HTP Update
Home Frame
Laboratory
Secretagogues
Pregnenolone
Progesterone
Progesterone+E
5-HTP
5-HTP Library
5-HTP Update
Growth Hormones
Stimulators
Order Form
Book Store
Prostate Cancer
FTC Crack Down
hGH-PH Complex