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Duane Graveline M.D., M.P.H.
Former USAF Flight Surgeon
Former NASA Astronaut Retired Family Doctor

For more information on Statin Drugs and their Side Effects, visit:

http://www.spacedoc.net also http://www.thehormoneshop.com/sitemap.htm 

REFERENCES From "The Statin Damage Crisis" by Duane Graveline M.D.

CHAPTER 1 How Statin Drugs Work 
1. Brousseau ME, Schaefer, EJ, "Structure and mechanism of action of  HMG CoA reductase inhibitors "in HMG-CoA
Reductase Inhibitors,

Schmitz, G., Torzewski, M, Eds. Basel, Schweiz, Birkhauser, 2002. 
2. Shovman O and others. Anti‑inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of statins. 
Immunol Res
25(3): 272-85, 2002 
3. Masato E and others. Statin prevents tissue factor expression in human endothelial cells. 
Circulation
105:1756, 2002
4.Chen F and others. New insights into the role of American Journal of (Pathology 159:387 397,2001
5. Hilgendorff A and others. Statins differ in their ability~'to block NF kB  activation in human blood monocytes. International Journal of clinical pharmacology
and therapeutics 41(9): 397-401, 2003
6. Karin M, Delhase M. The 1 kappa B kinase and NF­ kappa B: key elements of proinflammatory signaling. Semin Immunol 12(1): 85-98,  2000
7. Tato CM and Hunter CM. Host‑pathogen interactions: subversion and utilization of the NF-kB pathway during infection. Infection and Immunity 70(7): 3311-3317, 2002
8. Raggatt LJ, Partridge NC. HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors as immunomodulators: potential use in transplant rejection. Drugs 62(15): 2185-91, 2002.
9. Kwak B and others. Statins as a newly recognized type immunomodulator. Nature Medicine 6:1399 1402, 2000
10. Leung BP and others. A novel anti‑inflammatory role for simvastatin in vinflammatory arthritis. J lmmunol 170(3): 1524-30, 2003

11. Palinski W Immunomodulation: A new role for statins?
Nature Medicine 6:1311‑1 312, 2000
12.
Ely JTA, Krone CA. A brief update on ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q 10). J Orthomol Med 15(2): 63-8, 2000
13. Ely JTA, Krone CA. Urgent update on ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q 10). http://www..facultv.washington.edu/ely/turnover.html  2000
14.
Langsjoen P, Langsjoen E. Statin associated congestive heart failure. Proceedings of Weston Price Foundation Meeting, Spring, 2003.
15.
Langsjoen P, Langsjoen A. Coenzyme Q10 In cardiovascular disease with emphasis on heart failure and myocardial ischemia. Asia Pacific Heart Journal 7(3): 160-168, 1998.
16. Gaist D and others. Statins and the risk of polyneuropathy: A case control study. Neurology 58: 1333­ 1337, 2002.                                                                                                                                                      `
17. Sparks S. Written personal communication. 8 August, 2003.
18.
Golomb  B and others. Amnesia in association with statin drug use. UCSD statin research study (under review) 2002.
19.
Schwartz G and others. Effects of Atorvastatin on early recurrent ischemic events in acute coronary
syndromes.
Journal of the American Medical Association 285 (13): 1711‑1717. 2002
20.
Sever PS and others. Prevention of Coronary and Stoke Events With Atorvastatin In Hypertensive Patients Who Have Average Or Lower-Than Average Cholesterol Concentrations in the Anglo‑Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial. Lancet 361: 1149-1158;2003
21.
The Allhat Officers and Coordinators For the Allhat Collaborative Research Group. Major Outcomes In Moderately Hypercholesterolemic, Hypertensive Patients Randomized to Pravastatin vs. Usual Care: The Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment To Prevent Heart Attack Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 288: 2998-3007,   2002.
22. Collins R and others Heart Protection Study of Cholesterol Lowering With Simvastatin in 5963 People With Diabetes Lancet 361: 2005-2016,        2003
23. Ravnskov U. The Cholesterol Myths, New Trends Publishing, 2000.
24.
Rosch Postdating drug side effects. Proceeding of the Weston Price Foundation Meeting, Spring 2003
25.
Matsuzaki M and others. Large scale cohort study of the relationship between serum cholesterol concentration and coronary events with low‑dose simvastatin therapy in Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia.  Circ J 66:1087-1095, 2002
26. Pfrieger F. Brain researcher discovers bright side of ill‑famed molecule. Science, 9 November, 2001.
27.
Muldoon MF and others. Effects of Lovastatin on cognitive function and psychological wellbeing. Am JMed 2000 May: 108(7) 538-460
28. FAA headquarters, personal communication.

CHAPTER 2 Mevalonate Blockade

 

CHAPTER 3 Statins and Brain Cholesterol

      1.Pfrieger F. Brainresearcher discovers bright side of illfamed molecule. Science, 9 November, 2001 .     
2. Pfrieger, F. Ibid.
 3. Muldoon MF and others. Effects of Lovastatin on cognitive function and psychological well‑being. Am J Med 2000 May: 108(7) 538-460                  r
4.   Hodges JR, Warlow CP. The etiology of transient global amnesia: A case‑control study of 114 cases with prospective follow-up. Brain 113: 639-657, 1990.
5.   Wagstaff L and others. Statin associated memory loss: analysis of 60 case reports and review literature Pharmacotherapy 23(7): 871‑880, 2003.
CHAPTER 4 Statins and CoQ 10

  1. ly JTA, Krone CA. A brief update on ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q 10). J Orthomol Med 15(2): 63‑8, 2000
  2. . Ely JTA, Krone CA. Urgent update on ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q 10). www.faculty.washington.edu/ely/turnover.html 2000.
  3. Langsjoen P, Langsjoen E. Statin associated congestive heart failure. Proceedings of Weston­Price Foundation Meeting, Spring, 2003.
  4.  Langsjoen P, Langsjoen A. Coenzyme Q10 In cardiovascular disease with emphasis on heart failure and myocardial ischemia. Asia Pacific Heat Journal 7(3): 160168, 1998.
  5.  Gaist D and others. Statins and the risk of polyneuropathy: A case control study. Neurology 58: 13331337, 2002.
  6. Phillip PS and others. Statin‑associated myopathy with normal creatine kinase levels. Ann Int Med 137(7): 581‑85, 2002
  7.  Ely JTA, Krone CA. A brief update on ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q 10). J Orthomol Med 15(2): 63-8, 2000.
  8.  Wallace DC. Mitochondria) DNA in aging and disease. Sci Amer 40-7.
  9.  Ibid.
  10.  Wolfe S. Public citizen petitions FDA to warn doctors, patients about cholesterol drugs, 20 August, 2001

11. Whitaker J. Citizens' petition filed with FDA to include coenzyme Q 10 use recommendation in all statin drug labeling. Life Extension Magazine, May 23, 2002

 

CHAPTER 5 Statins and Dolichols

1. Griffiths G, Simons K. The Trans‑Golgi Network: Sorting at the Exit Side of the Golgi Complex, Science
243: 438‑442, 1986.
2. Pert C.
Molecules of Emotion, Scribner, New York, 1997
3. Lambrecht BN. Immunologists getting nervous: neuropeptides, dendritic cells and T cell activation.
Respiratory Research 2: 133-38, 2001 
4. Norris JF and others.
Neurosecretion: Retrospectives and Perspectives. HW Korf and KH Usadel, Eds. Springer, Berlin, 71‑85,1997 
5. Hokfelt T and others. General Overview of neuropeptides. The fourth generation of progress. http://www.acnp.org/g4GN401000047/CH.html  2000 
6. Golomb B and others. Severe irritability associated with statin cholesterol lowering drugs.
QJMed. 97:229-235. 2004.

CHAPTER 6 Statins and Nuclear Factor kappa-B

1. Shovman O and others. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of statins. 2001 2. Hilgendorff A and others. Statins differ in their ability to block NF-kB activation in human blood monocytes. Internat J Clin Pharm and Therapeut 41(9): 397-401, 2003,
3. Karin M, Delhase M. The 1 kappa B kinase and NF-­kappa B: key elements of proinflammatory signaling.
Semin Immunol 12(1):85-98, 2000
4. Masato E and others. Statins prevent tissue factor expression in human endothelial cells.
Circ 103: 1736, 2002
4. Chen F and others. New insights into the role of nuclear factor kB in cell growth metabolism.
American Journal of Pathology 159:387-397, 2001
5. Karin M, Delhase M. The 1 kappa B kinase and NF­ kappa B: key elements of proinflammatory signaling.
Semin Immunol 12(1): 85-98, 2000
6. Tato CM and Hunter CM. Host‑pathogen interactions: subversion and utilization of the NF-kB pathway during infection.
Infection and Immunity 70(7): 3311-3317, 2002
7. Raggatt LJ, Partridge NC. HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors as immunomodulators: potential use in transplant rejection.
Drugs 62(15): 2185‑91, 2002.
8. Kwak B and others. Statins as a newly recognized type of immunomodulator. Nature Medicine 6:1399-1402, 2000 
9. Leung BP and others. A novel anti‑inflammatory role for simvatatin in inflammatory arthritis. J Immunol 170(3): 1524-30, 2003 
10. Palinski W. Immunomodulation: A new role for statins? Nature Medicine 6:1311-1312, 2000 
11. Ravnskov U. The Cholesterol Myths, New Trends Publishing, 2000. 
12. Rosch P. Statin drug side effects. Proceeding of the Weston Price Foundation Meeting, Spring 2003 
13. Matsuzaki M and others. Large‑scale cohort study of the relationship between serum cholesterol concentration and coronary events with low-dose simvastatin therapy in Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. CircJ66:1087-1095, 2002

CHAPTER 7 Cholesterol's vital role

1. Guyton AC, Hall JE. The Adrenocortical Hormones. In Textbook of Medical Physiology, 9th Ed, 957-971, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1996.
2. Russel DW. Green Light for Steroid Hormones. Science 272: 370‑371, 1996.
3. Pfrieger F. Brain researcher discovers bright side of ill-famed molecule. Science, 9 November, 2001.
4. Pfrieger, F. Ibid.
5. Muldoon MF and others. Cholesterol Reduction and Non-Illness Mortality. Meta‑Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. British Medical Journal 322: 11-15, 2001.
6. Golomb BA. Cholesterol and Violence: Is There Connection? Annals of Internal Medicine  128: 478-487, 1998.

7. Wolozin B and others. Decreased Prevalence of   Alzheimer                                                                                                                                                             Disease Associated With 3-Hydroxy‑3­ Disease Associated With 3-Hydroxy-3-Methyglutaryl                                                                                                                                           Coenzyme A Reduction Inhibitors. Archives of Neurology 57: 1439‑1443, 2000.

8 Golomb B. Statins and Dementia. Letters to the Editor

Archives of Neurology 58(7), July 2001.

 

9 Pfrieger F. Cholesterol homeostasis and function in neurons of the central nervous system. Cell Mol Life

 Sci 60:1158‑1171, 2003

10 Lorin H. Alzheimer's Solved. Book Surge LLC, 2005

11 Kaplan M. Low Cholesterol Causes Aggressive

  12 Behavior and Depression. Psychosomatic Medicine 56: 479‑484, 1994.

  13 Bender KJ. Psychiatric Times 15(5), 1998.

  14 Duits N, Bos F. Depressive Symptoms and Cholesterol Lowering Drugs. Lancet 341, Letter, 1999

  15 Lechleitner M. Depressive Symptoms in Hypercholesterolaemic Patients Treated With Pravastatin, Lancet 340, Letter, 1999.

  16 Buydens‑Branchey L, Branchey M. Association between low plasma levels of cholesterol and relapse in cocaine addicts. Psychosomatic Medicine 65: 86‑91, 2003.

17 Norwich TB ‑ and others. Low Serum total cholesterol is associated with marked increase in mortality
in advanced heart failure. Journal of Cardiac Failure 8(4), 2002.

  18 McCully KS. The Homocysteine Revolution. Keats,' 1997

 

CHAPTER 8  Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

  1. McCully KS. The Homocysteine Revolution. Keats, 1997

  2. Pauling L. Unified concept of Cardiovascular disease.

  http://www.ourhealthcoop com/pauling.htm 

  3. McCully K. Homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis: Development and current status. In Gotto AM. Paolett R, editors, Atherosclerosis Reviews 11: 157‑246, Raven Press, New York, 1983.

  4. McCully K. Atherosclerosis, serum cholesterol and the homocysteine theory: A study of 194 consecutive

  autopsies. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 299: 217‑221, 1990.

  5.Wilcken DE, Wilcken B. The pathogenesis of coronary heart disease. A possible role for methionine metabolism. Journal of Clinical lnvestigation 57: 1079-1082, 1976.

6. Boushey CJ and others. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Journal of the American Medical Association 274: 1049-1057, 1995.

7. Kauffman J. Should you take aspirin to prevent heart attack? Journal of Scientific Exploration 14 (4): 623-641, 2000.

8. Ravnskov U. The Cholesterol Myths, New Trends Publishing, 2000.

CHAPTER 9  The Misguided War on Cholesterol

1. Atkins, R. Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution. 3rd Ed. Evans, New York, 2002.
2. Taubes G. What If It's All Been A Big, Fat Lie? New York Times Magazine, July 7, 2002.
3.Eades MR, Eades MD. Protein Power. Bantam Books, 1996.
4.   Sears B. The Zone. Harper Collins, 1997.
5. Steward H and others.
Sugar Busters. Ballentine Books, 1998.
6. McCully KS, McCully M.
The Heart Revolution. Harper Collins, 2000.
7. Willett W. Turning The Food Pyramid Up Side Down.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76: 1261‑1271, 2002.
8. Enig MG, Fallon S. The Mediterranean Diet‑‑Pasta or Pastrami?
The Weston A. Price Foundation Magazine, Spring, 2000.
9. Ibid.
l0.Keys A. Coronary heart disease in seven countries,
Circulation 41(supplement 1), 1970.
11.Ibid.
12. Mann George. The great cholesterol scam. 21st century Science and Technology 2(3), May­-179

CHAPTER 10  A Failed National Diet. What Diet, Then?

1. McCully KS, McCully M. The Heart Revolution. Harper Collins, 2000.
2. Banting, Letter of Corpulence. 1­ittp://www.lowcarb.ca/corpulence/
3. Atkins RC. Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution.
3rd Ed. Evans, New York, 2002.
4. Kauffman J. Low carbohydrate diets. Journal of Scientific Exploration,
5. 2004.
 
6. Braly J, Hoggan R. Dangerous Grains: Why Gluten Cereal May Be Hazardous To Your Health. Avery/Penguin Putnam, New York, 2002.
7 Ottoboni A, Ottoboni F. The Modern Nutritional Diseases: Heart Disease, Stroke, Type‑2 Diabetes, Obesity, Cancer, and How To Prevent Them. Vincenti Books, Sparks, NV, 2002.
8 McCully KS, McCully M. The Heart Revolution. Harper Collins, 2000.

9 Bernstein, R. Dr. Bernstein's Diabetes Solution. Little,  Brown, Boston, 1997.
10 Smith MD. Going Against the Grain: How Reducing and Avoiding Grains Can Revitalize Your Health.
Contemporary Books, Chicago, 2002.
11 Allan C, Lutz W. Life Without Bread: How a Low‑Carbohydrate Diet Can Save Your Life. Keats, Los Angeles, 2000.
12 Groves B. Eat Fat Get Thin. Vermilion, London, 1999.
13 Eades MR, Eades MD. The Protein Power Lifeplan. Warner Books, New York, 2000.
14 Atkins RC. Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution.
3rd Ed. Evans, New York, 2002.
15 Kwasniewski MD, Chylinski M. Homo Optimus. Wydawnictwo WGP, Warsaw, 2000
16 Enig M, Fallon S. The Oiling of America. Nexus
Magazine, Feb‑Mar, 1999.
17 McCully KS, McCully M. The Heart Revolution. Harper Collins, 2000
18 Fallon S, Enig M. What causes heart disease?
Lancet l:1062‑1065, 1983
19 Kauffman J. Should you take aspirin to prevent heart attack? Journal of Scientific Exploration 14 (4): 623‑641, 2000.
 

CHAPTER 11 Enter Glyconutrients

1 Kidd P. Altern Med Rev 5(1):16, 2000                                                     
2 Hsu HY and others.
Am J Chin Med 18 (1‑2):61-69, 1990                                        
3 Pande and Kuman M. Pharmaceut Biol 36(3):227-232, 1998
4. Eggar SF and others. Cancer Immunol Immunother 43(4):195-205, 1996              
5. Matsunaga K and others. Invasion Metastasiks 16(1): 27­-38, 1996
6. Matsunaga K and others. Oncology 51(4):303-308, 1994
7. Saavedra J and others. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nuts 29(4):95A, 1999
8. Saavedra J and others.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 29(4):58A, 1999
9. Arcadi VC.
Dynamic Chiropractic February 26, 1996
10 M. Vander‑Wal, C.E.'Pippenger, Proc. Fish. Inst. Med. Res., 3 (2); 9‑12, 2004.
11 Watson M. Arthritis Rheum 42(8):1682‑90, 1999                                                              

CHAPTER 12 Anti‑Inflammatory Alternatives to Statins Recommended reading material relevant to this section:

1 Langsjoen P, Langsjoen E. Statin associated congestive heart failure. Proceedings of Weston‑Price Foundation Meeting, Spring, 2003.
2 Langsjoen P, Langsjoen A. Coenzyme Q10 In cardiovascular disease with emphasis on heart failure and myocardial ischemia.
Asia Pacific Heart Journal 7(3): 160-168, 1998.
3. Bargossi AM and others. Exogenous CoQ 10 supplementation prevents ubiquinone reduction induced

by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Mol Aspects Med. 15(Suppl): S187‑93, 1994
4. De Pinieux and others. Lipid-
lowering drugs and mitochondrial function: effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on serum ubiquinone and blood lactate/pyruvate ratio. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 42(3): 333‑37, 1996 
5. Ely JTA, Krone CA. A brief update on ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q 10). J Orthomol Med 15(2): 63‑8, 2000 
6. Ely JTA, Krone CA. Urgent update on ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q 10), 2000

       
http://www.faculty.washington.edu/ely/turnover.html  
7. Wallace DC. Mitochondrial DNA in aging and disease, Sci Amer; 40-7, 1997
 8. Pauling L. Unified theory of heart disease. 1991 http://www.ourhealthcoop.com/pauling.htm
 9. Lee KW, Lip GYH. The Role of Omega‑3 in the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 96: 465-480, 2003.
10 Omega‑3 information http://www.omega-3info.com/home.htm
11 Covington M Omega‑3 fatty. acids AFB 70(1) July 2004
12 McCully KS. The Homocysteine Revolution. Keats,1997.
13 Ubbink JB, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Jan 1993;57: 47-53
14 Selhub J and others. JAMA 270:2693-2698; 1993
15 Naurath HJ and others. Lancet 346:85-91, 1995
16 Kauffman J Malignant Medical Myths. Infinity Publishing, 2005
17 Matsuzaki M and others. Large scale cohort study of the relationship between serum cholesterol concentration and coronary events with low‑dose simvastatin therapy in Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Circ J 66:1087-1095, 2002
18 Hilgendorff A and others. Statins differ in their ability to block NF‑kB activation in human blood monocytes.
Internat J Clin Pharm and Therapeut 41(9): 397-401, 2003
19 Law MR and others. Quantifying effect of statins on low density lipoprotein cholesterol, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke: systematic review and meta-­analysis. BMJ 326:1423, 2006 20 Shovman O and others. Anti-inflammatory and Immunomodulatory properties of statins. ImmunolRes 25(3): 272-85, 2002
21. Heber D and others. Cholesterol lowering effects of a proprietary Chinese red yeast rice dietary supplement. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69: 231-236, 1999.
22. Tan, B. and A. M. Mueller. Tocotrienols in Cardiometabolic Diseases. Tocotrienols: Vitamin E beyond Tocopherol. R. Watson, AOCS Press. 2008.
23 Peskin, B and Habib A. The Hidden Story of Cancer. Pinnacle Press. 2008

 

CHAPTER 13. Failure of Medwatch

1. http://www.spacedoc.net/662_cases_ memory_loss.html 

2. http://www.spacedoc.net/medwatch_reporting.html

 

CHAPTER 14. Serious Statin Drug Statin Side Effects

a)The ALS/Statin Link                                                                              j

1. Meske V and others. European Journal of Neuroscience. 17: 93, 2003
2. Lambourne S and others. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 2005
http://mcb.asm.org /cgi/content/abstract/25/1/278
3.Ferrer I and others, Current Alzheimer's Research, 2005 http://mch.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/25/l/278
4. Sharma N and Lee M. Two to tango: the story of tau.Eukaryon 1:28-32, 2006
5.Mathuranath P. Tau and tauopathies. 55(1) 11-16, 2007
Statins and ALS-Like Syndrome

b.) Permanent Peripheral Neuropathy

Jospeh Tuazon, PharmD. Medical Information Manager, Pfizer U.S. Medical Information.NDA (New Drug Application) studies. Changes in Memory and Cogition with Tables 1 & 2. Pfizer Inc. 182 Tabor Road, Morris Plains, NJ 07950 14 June 2006

c.) Permanent Myopathy

1. Vladutiu G and others. Genetic risk factors associated with lipid ­lowering drug‑induced myopathies.
Muscle Nerve 34: 153-162, 2006
2. Golomb BA, Evans, MA 2008. "Statin Adverse Effects:
A Review of the Literature & Evidence for a Mitochondrial Mechanism."
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs. March
2009, (in press)

d.) Chronic Neuromuscular Degeneration
1.Draeger and others. Statin therapy induces ultrastructural damage in skeletal muscle in patients without myalgia. Pathology 210: 94-­102, 2002 Caso G and others. Statin therapy induces ultrastructural damage in skeletal muscle in patients without myalgia. Journal of Pathology 210: 94-102, 2006
3. Campbell W. Statin
myopathy: The: iceberg or its tip? Muscle G&. Nerve 34(4l): 387-390, 2006
4 . Vladutiu G and others. Genetic risk factors associated with lipid-lowering drug-induced myopathies. Muscle Nerve 34: 153-162, 2006
5. Mooseman B and Behl C. Selenoprotein synthesis and side effects of statins. Lancet 363:892
-94, 2004

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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